WEBVTT 1 00:00:00.000 --> 00:00:07.000 My name is Natalie Wilson and it is my great pleasure to be speaking to you from Gadigal and Bidjigal lands. 2 00:00:07.000 --> 00:00:19.000 I would like to acknowledge with respect the countries, the waterways, the skies and the spiritual systems of the First Nations peoples on whose lands I work and live. 3 00:00:19.000 --> 00:00:29.000 I do this in the spirit of reconciliation as we move to a place of justice and partnership and together walk gently on this land. 4 00:00:29.000 --> 00:00:41.000 For a hundred years, audiences have been flocking to the Art Gallery of New South Wales to see the annual Archibald Prize, Australia's longest running and most celebrated portrait award. 5 00:00:41.000 --> 00:00:50.000 There have been many portrait prizes that have followed over the past century, but none have received the acclaim in public adoration like the Archies. 6 00:00:50.000 --> 00:01:02.000 Since the award was first established in 1921, visitors have experienced their brush with fame as they scrutinised the famous and infamous faces on the walls. 7 00:01:02.000 --> 00:01:08.000 The person behind the prize was the journalist and newspaper publisher, J.F. Archibald. 8 00:01:08.000 --> 00:01:17.000 Born John Feltham Archibald in Geelong, Victoria, he refashioned himself as Jules Francois with an imaginary French ancestry. 9 00:01:17.000 --> 00:01:24.000 As it happens, Archibald's younger half-brother Carl was himself an aspiring artist. 10 00:01:24.000 --> 00:01:34.000 A student at Melbourne's National Gallery School in the 1890s under the tutelage of the claimed Australian Impressionist painter Frederick McCubbin. 11 00:01:34.000 --> 00:01:48.000 And alongside Max Meldrum and Margaret Preston, who became celebrated artists, Carl Archibald died tragically on his return journey to Australia in 1915 after a decade studying in Europe. 12 00:01:48.000 --> 00:02:02.000 Perhaps Carl's untimely death, together with Archibald's abiding interest in portraiture, led him to endow an annual portrait competition to be judged by the trustees of the Art Gallery of New South Wales. 13 00:02:02.000 --> 00:02:25.000 The terms of his bequest, which still apply, state the Art Award Prize be awarded to the best portrait, and I quote, "Preferentially of some man or woman distinguished in art, letters, science or politics, painted by any artist, resident in Australasia, during the twelve months preceding the date fixed by the trustees for sending in the pictures." 14 00:02:25.000 --> 00:02:34.000 These rules have been a source of contention and controversy over the years, which I'll return to later. 15 00:02:34.000 --> 00:02:45.000 The Gallery's Archibald 100 project began back in 2018, recognising that the centenary of the Art Award Prize in 2021 was just around the corner. 16 00:02:45.000 --> 00:03:00.000 Most people assume, understandably, that every work that has appeared in the Art Award Prize must have been documented and photographed, yet it is only relatively recently in a digital age that this has been possible. 17 00:03:00.000 --> 00:03:11.000 Not even a list of works survives for the inaugural 1921 Art Award Prize, and that first exhibition held in January 1922 garnered little interest in the press. 18 00:03:11.000 --> 00:03:21.000 We've been able to determine there were 41 works and identify many of them from scant records kept in the Art Gallery's archives and a few newspaper reviews. 19 00:03:21.000 --> 00:03:27.000 In the years that followed, the winning work was always reproduced in the press, but little else. 20 00:03:27.000 --> 00:03:44.000 While Gallery staff had been recording information about past Archibald portraits over the decades, it wasn't until 2018 that the Archibald 100 team began in earnest the gargantuan task of trying to track down all 6,000+ Art Award Prize works. 21 00:03:44.000 --> 00:03:54.000 We contacted institutions, both public and private, across Australia and further afield, to find out what portraits were held in collections. 22 00:03:54.000 --> 00:04:04.000 Art galleries, museums, libraries, schools, universities, churches, sporting organisations, town halls and the many agencies of government. 23 00:04:04.000 --> 00:04:11.000 Of course, there were also the artists and their families, as well as Archibald subjects and their families. 24 00:04:11.000 --> 00:04:18.000 All up, we've written and received well over 30,000 emails from our dedicated Archibald 100 email address. 25 00:04:18.000 --> 00:04:35.000 We also reached out to people across Australia through interviews on regional, state and national radio and on ABC TV's The Drum, as well as several articles published in newspapers, magazines and via postings on social media platforms. 26 00:04:35.000 --> 00:04:40.000 The word eventually got out about our search for lost Archibald portraits. 27 00:04:40.000 --> 00:04:46.000 You might wonder how it is possible that there are so many former Archibald portraits. 28 00:04:46.000 --> 00:04:56.000 While today it is only possible for artists to enter one work in the prize and the annual exhibition features approximately 50 of what today we call finalists, 29 00:04:56.000 --> 00:05:06.000 between 1921 and 1945 it was possible for artists to submit as many works as they wanted and every work entered was displayed. 30 00:05:06.000 --> 00:05:17.000 In the 1945 Archibald Prize exhibition held in January 1946, nearly 200 portraits lined the walls of the Art Gallery of New South Wales. 31 00:05:17.000 --> 00:05:23.000 The trustees of the gallery decided something needed to be done and the rules were changed. 32 00:05:23.000 --> 00:05:34.000 The following year, artists were only permitted to submit two portraits, both of which could be selected, and the trustees would choose a group of works from the annual exhibition. 33 00:05:34.000 --> 00:05:42.000 The rule allowing just one portrait per artist changed as recently as 2003. 34 00:05:42.000 --> 00:05:51.000 After two years of tracking down most of Archibald portraits, in 2020, just as the COVID pandemic was beginning to shut down institutions across the country, 35 00:05:51.000 --> 00:05:57.000 I began to whittle down my shortlist and I started to establish some ground rules for the selection. 36 00:05:57.000 --> 00:06:07.000 Firstly, it was not going to be an exhibition just about the winners. That would mean roughly 90% of works would be by male artists only. 37 00:06:07.000 --> 00:06:16.000 It would also mean, at least until recent years, an almost total lack of cultural diversity in the artists and their subjects. 38 00:06:16.000 --> 00:06:24.000 To make the Archibald 100 selection inclusive and representative of the way portraiture has developed in Australia across the century, 39 00:06:24.000 --> 00:06:30.000 I decided to set myself some boundaries. I would aim for around 10 works per decade. 40 00:06:30.000 --> 00:06:39.000 I would get as close to gender parity as possible despite the difficulties, with many portraits by women artists still unaccounted for. 41 00:06:39.000 --> 00:06:46.000 I would try to ensure artists from every state and territory, as well as from Aotearoa/New Zealand, were represented. 42 00:06:46.000 --> 00:06:59.000 The diversity of artistic styles would embrace the gamut of art movements of the 20th century, including academic realism, cubism, expressionism, pop, photo realism and everything in between. 43 00:06:59.000 --> 00:07:13.000 And finally, each and every work would have a unique and compelling story to tell, either from the point of view of the artist or the sitter, preferably both, and of course would be a great painting. 44 00:07:13.000 --> 00:07:28.000 It soon became apparent that creating an exhibition that followed specific themes, rather than traversing a chronological path across 100 years, would present a more coherent history of the Archibald Prize. 45 00:07:28.000 --> 00:07:34.000 It's here we start our journey through Archibald 100. 46 00:07:34.000 --> 00:07:43.000 The exhibition begins with an introduction to JF Archibald, including this portrait by Tasmanian-born artist Florence Rodway. 47 00:07:43.000 --> 00:07:55.000 We also present the winning work from the 1921 Archibald Prize, which went to Melbourne artist William Beckwith McInnes, with his portrait of renowned Indigo-born architect Harold Desbrowe Annear, 48 00:07:55.000 --> 00:08:04.000 and which instigated a rivalry between Victorian and New South Wales artists that lasted for decades. 49 00:08:04.000 --> 00:08:08.000 The first theme of the exhibition is wielding the brush. 50 00:08:08.000 --> 00:08:13.000 By far the most common subjects in the Archibald Prize are the artists themselves. 51 00:08:13.000 --> 00:08:21.000 Of all the portraits shown in the Prize since 1921, well over 900 have been self-portraits. 52 00:08:21.000 --> 00:08:30.000 Merging the sitter and artist into one, the self-portrait asserts the painter's status as meriting the term "distinguished". 53 00:08:30.000 --> 00:08:38.000 In 1934, a then-unknown artist named Henry Hanke was the first to win the Archibald Prize with a self-portrait. 54 00:08:38.000 --> 00:08:43.000 Since then, 13 self-portraits have won the Prize. 55 00:08:43.000 --> 00:08:54.000 Self-portraits may also give us an insight into the artist's psychological state, offering a form of autobiographical insight while constructing a public persona. 56 00:08:54.000 --> 00:09:06.000 Intimate and introspective, rash and flamboyant, pukish and comical, the self-portrait also acts as an advertisement for technical prowess and self-promotion, 57 00:09:06.000 --> 00:09:14.000 a kind of calling card for future commissions. With the Archibald Prize, it's biggest catch. 58 00:09:14.000 --> 00:09:24.000 This portrait by George Lambert was painted when he was 47 years old and had just returned to Australia, having achieved significant recognition and success in Britain. 59 00:09:24.000 --> 00:09:27.000 It was his first Archibald portrait. 60 00:09:27.000 --> 00:09:37.000 Lambert had just moved to Sydney and was exhausted by a relentless workload of commissions, lecturing and social commitments. 61 00:09:37.000 --> 00:09:45.000 Controversially, both Lambert and John Longstaff removed their works within a fortnight of the opening of the 1922 exhibition. 62 00:09:45.000 --> 00:09:52.000 Both artists had been deemed ineligible for the award due to their residency status. 63 00:09:52.000 --> 00:10:01.000 Despite having lived in Australia for over a year, their London homes were still their primary residence. 64 00:10:01.000 --> 00:10:11.000 Within the Prize's history, there have been numerous controversies as well as inspiring stories that have captured the public's imagination. 65 00:10:11.000 --> 00:10:16.000 Henry Hanke's surprising win in 1934 was won. 66 00:10:16.000 --> 00:10:21.000 Hanke was just 33 years of age and the first Sydney-born winner. 67 00:10:21.000 --> 00:10:34.000 A little-known artist, he struggled to survive and support his family during the Great Depression, with his only source of income, a series of odd jobs and the Government Welfare Programme known as 'Sustenance Relief'. 68 00:10:34.000 --> 00:10:42.000 Hanke ground his own pigments, reused a donated frame and unable to afford a model looked in the mirror. 69 00:10:42.000 --> 00:10:54.000 The portrait took just eight hours to complete and eventually went on a celebratory national tour, with people flocking to locations around Australia to catch a glimpse of the work. 70 00:10:54.000 --> 00:11:02.000 In total, Henry Hanke had 66 portraits in the Archibald Prize between 1931 and 1972. 71 00:11:02.000 --> 00:11:10.000 I should mention that the record holder for the greatest number of works in the Archibald Prize is the Sydney artist Joseph Wolinski. 72 00:11:10.000 --> 00:11:18.000 Of his 107 portraits in the Archibald between 1921 and 1951, none took out the Prize. 73 00:11:18.000 --> 00:11:25.000 Wolinski is better known for the role he played in the 1943 scandal, which I'll return to later. 74 00:11:25.000 --> 00:11:30.000 Very few of his Archibald Prize works have ever been discovered. 75 00:11:30.000 --> 00:11:36.000 This striking work, our post to go for Archie 100, is by Tempe Manning. 76 00:11:36.000 --> 00:11:43.000 In a departure from her French academic training, she began experimenting with pointless colour theories and techniques, 77 00:11:43.000 --> 00:11:54.000 and the work she produced at this time added to the first vital stage of modernist culture in Australia, alongside well-known Sydney artist Grace Cossinngton Smith. 78 00:11:54.000 --> 00:12:01.000 Manning renders an assured elegance and confidence in her pose and bold gaze, 79 00:12:01.000 --> 00:12:10.000 alluding both to George Lambert's hand gestures and Henry Hanke's stance in his 1934 wedding portrait. 80 00:12:10.000 --> 00:12:16.000 And so we move on to the next thing, the intimacy of familiarity. 81 00:12:16.000 --> 00:12:24.000 After artists have turned the mirror on themselves, who better than their family when it comes to choosing an Archibald subject? 82 00:12:24.000 --> 00:12:32.000 Parents, siblings, partners, children, even in-laws, have all featured as Archibald sitters. 83 00:12:32.000 --> 00:12:40.000 Proximity and availability for sittings are two off-sighted reasons for painting those close to home. 84 00:12:40.000 --> 00:12:51.000 Marital rifts and strained emotions occasionally simmer just beneath the surface when those closest to the heart enter the realm of the artist's canvas. 85 00:12:51.000 --> 00:13:02.000 Nonetheless, familial ties are often painted with strong affection, revealing intimacy, tenderness and enduring ancestral connections. 86 00:13:02.000 --> 00:13:09.000 More recently, these portraits are celebrations of new dynamics that have arisen over the past century, 87 00:13:09.000 --> 00:13:18.000 with the expansion of the traditional family unit and act to define the artist's own sense of identity. 88 00:13:18.000 --> 00:13:27.000 This portrait by Western Arunta artist Vincent Namatjira depicts himself with his great-grandfather, the renowned Arunta artist Albert Namatjira, 89 00:13:27.000 --> 00:13:33.000 whose work he only became aware of after returning to his traditional lands at Hermannsburg. 90 00:13:33.000 --> 00:13:43.000 Vincent Namatjira had grown up in the foster system in Perth following the death of his mother and came to painting a little more than a decade ago. 91 00:13:43.000 --> 00:13:57.000 He recounts, "Painting is in my blood. It is part of our family. I'm finding my own way now with painting, and I want to keep fighting that battle in the studio every day." 92 00:13:57.000 --> 00:14:10.000 In 1973, Janet Dawson became the third woman to win the Artful Prize, with this portrait of her husband, the English-Australian actor and writer Michael Boddy. 93 00:14:10.000 --> 00:14:23.000 A ten-pound pom, Boddy emigrated to Australia in 1959. Throughout the 1960s, he appeared on stage and television and was part of the new wave of Australian theatre. 94 00:14:23.000 --> 00:14:37.000 Success came with the 1970 musical play The Legend of Kim O'Malley, written by Boddy and Bob Ellis, and directed by John Bell, with designs by Dawson and Sir Lloyd. 95 00:14:37.000 --> 00:14:52.000 Nicholas Harding's 2001 winning portrait of John Bell also appears in Archie 100, and the National Portrait Gallery holds David Naseby's portrait of Bob Ellis, which appeared in the 1999 Archibald. 96 00:14:52.000 --> 00:15:06.000 Described as gentle, erudite and private, Boddy later wrote books on food, home economics and sustainable living, following the couple's move to the NSW Southern Table Lands from Sydney. 97 00:15:06.000 --> 00:15:32.000 Here, the artist presents Boddy surrounded by gardening implements and sporting a straw hat. It is a tranquil and meditative image, imbued with a sensitivity, reflected in Dawson's choice of palette, with pale pink and shimmering creams reflecting and refracting the soft light entering through the shed door. 98 00:15:32.000 --> 00:15:48.000 One of the most ubiquitous of subjects in the Archibald Prize are portraits of other artists. In fact, 36 portraits of artists, including 13 self-portraits, have won the award since 1921. 99 00:15:48.000 --> 00:16:03.000 Throughout the century, these portrayals have signalled both collegiality and respect among Australian and New Zealand artists, occasionally marked and matched with spirited rivalry. 100 00:16:03.000 --> 00:16:21.000 Archibald painters are always on the lookout for their next subject, and who can relate better to the process of creating a portrait, the sitting, the sketches, the decisions about angle, light and setting than their fellow practitioners? 101 00:16:21.000 --> 00:16:37.000 This portrait by South Australian painter Robert Hannaford from the 1995 Archibald Prize features Wangkajunga, Walmajarri Painter, Printmaker and Preacher Jarinyanu David Downs. 102 00:16:37.000 --> 00:16:48.000 Painted shortly before his passing in April 1995, Hannaford captures the artist's frailty and strength in equal measure. 103 00:16:48.000 --> 00:17:02.000 His masterful rendering of the folds and crevices of his subjects' clothing and penetrating observation of his countenance confirms Hannaford as one of Australia's most revered portrait painters. 104 00:17:02.000 --> 00:17:10.000 Yet although he has had 27 portraits selected, the artist has never won the Archibald Prize. 105 00:17:10.000 --> 00:17:30.000 Ruminating on his inclusion in Archie 100, Hannaford said of his subject, "He was a very interesting man, and he was quiet, almost introverted. I'm very gratified that they chose this one out of all my entries." 106 00:17:30.000 --> 00:17:42.000 Group portraits of artists, although rare in the Archibald, often convey an air of creative vigor and synergy, affirming artistic friendship and camaraderie. 107 00:17:42.000 --> 00:17:52.000 They also provide an opportunity for the artist to experiment with the formal aspect of composition when dealing with multiple portraits within the one painting. 108 00:17:52.000 --> 00:18:14.000 There is the suggestion of interaction and collaboration between the sitters, such as this portrait by Sally Ross of LGBTQI creative collaborators Will Huxley and Garrett Huxley, who work across performance art, costume, moving and still imagery. 109 00:18:14.000 --> 00:18:24.000 When Nora Heysen became the first woman to win the Archibald Prize in 1938, she finally broke the canvas ceiling. 110 00:18:24.000 --> 00:18:40.000 Although the Archibald has been awarded to just 11 women in the past 100 years, female artists have figured prominently in the prize since 1921, representing one third of all Archibald artists. 111 00:18:40.000 --> 00:18:57.000 In the theme "Recasting the Gays," we focus on the significance of female artists in the Archibald Prize and celebrate the triumphs of contemporary female artists and the groundbreaking paths they continue to forge. 112 00:18:57.000 --> 00:19:14.000 This wonderful painting from 1941 by Violet McInnes, the wife of seven-time Archibald winner W.B. McInnes and whose career was greatly overshadowed by that of her husband, portrays her fellow artist, Sybil Craig. 113 00:19:14.000 --> 00:19:23.000 In the 1940s, Craig cemented her place in the city's modern art scene with her vivid, light-filled compositions. 114 00:19:23.000 --> 00:19:33.000 In 1945, she became the third woman appointed as an official war artist, painting women working in the Australian Munitions factories. 115 00:19:33.000 --> 00:19:43.000 McInnes' portrait reveals a chic, independent woman, a vibrant figure in Melbourne society. 116 00:19:43.000 --> 00:20:05.000 Wendy Sharp's 1996 winning self-portrait, the first ever by a female artist of a self-portrait, and the fifth time a woman took home the prize, humorously and brazenly portrays herself as the Roman goddess Diana, her hunting bow replaced by paintbrushes. 117 00:20:05.000 --> 00:20:15.000 It is one of five self-portraits by Sharp that the Gallery's trustees have selected for display between 1994 and 2022. 118 00:20:15.000 --> 00:20:32.000 Actors, comedians, luminaries of the stage and screen, the list goes on. Celebrity has always cast its spell on the Archibald Prize, with people jostling to see their favourite icons on the wall and experience a brush with fame. 119 00:20:32.000 --> 00:20:40.000 When the talkies first hit world cinemas in 1927, the Archies were still in their infancy. 120 00:20:40.000 --> 00:20:52.000 Nevertheless, theatre and movie stars often appeared in the prizes early years, and the cult of celebrity reveals some of these long-forgotten personalities. 121 00:20:52.000 --> 00:21:03.000 As a reputation of the Archibald swelled, the popularity of subjects slowly became a consideration for artists in their bid to secure the prize. 122 00:21:03.000 --> 00:21:16.000 Some personalities have appeared on numerous occasions, and of all the portraits awarded, the People's Choice and Packing Room Prizes celebrities dominate, proving their power to allure. 123 00:21:16.000 --> 00:21:33.000 John Brack's portrayal of comedian Barry Humphrey's most famous persona, in average, is painted in his distinctive deadpan manner and was the first of seven portraits of Humphrey's in all his guises seen in the Archibald. 124 00:21:33.000 --> 00:21:45.000 One of my greatest thrills, curating this show, was the moment when I got to speak to my teen idol, Molly Meldrum, as we were filming for the ABC series Finding the Archibald. 125 00:21:45.000 --> 00:21:59.000 When I finally saw the 1983 portrait of Molly by Victorian artist Wes Walters, as the work was being unpacked at the gallery, I was like a kid in a lolly shop. It certainly didn't disappoint. 126 00:21:59.000 --> 00:22:25.000 This Archibald went on a portrait by Paul Newton of comedians John Doyle and Greig Pickhaver, better known as Roy and HG, took out the 2001 People's Choice and Packing Room Prizes just a year after they shot to international fame in the ABC series The Dream, with their tongue-in-cheek commentary of the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. 127 00:22:25.000 --> 00:22:32.000 For those who recall the series, Fatso the Wombat can be seen on Roy's white t-shirt. 128 00:22:32.000 --> 00:22:47.000 Of course, celebrity can be short-lived. Many household names have been forgotten over the course of 100 years. But, while fame is fleeting, a portrait endures. 129 00:22:47.000 --> 00:23:05.000 Over the past century, artists have sought out inspiring subjects for Archibald portraits. Some of these sitters were not widely known outside their communities until they featured in the exhibition, while others were already admired nationally and internationally. 130 00:23:05.000 --> 00:23:16.000 Often they were trailblazers in their chosen fields, whether in art, literature, law, filmmaking, sport or other endeavours. 131 00:23:16.000 --> 00:23:23.000 Sadly, many of these once-honoured individuals have now been largely forgotten. 132 00:23:23.000 --> 00:23:32.000 Lim Lee See, known as Granny Lum Loy, the matriarch of Darwin's Chinese community, was a pioneering market gardener. 133 00:23:32.000 --> 00:23:48.000 It is not known exactly when she was born, but at around the age of 10, she was brought to Darwin from Guangdong by the prominent merchant Feng Sui-Wing and his wife, Feng Yangxi, who owned stores across the Northern Territory. 134 00:23:48.000 --> 00:24:03.000 In this portrait by Victorian artist Geoff La Gerche, who was dubbed an eyeball realist for his super-scaled portraits, her weathered skin and her resting presence embody her abiding resilience. 135 00:24:03.000 --> 00:24:15.000 She survived two world wars, the deaths of her husband and only daughter, and the destruction of her precious gardens by Cyclone Tracy in 1974. 136 00:24:15.000 --> 00:24:27.000 In May 2023, her life was again celebrated by the Darwin community when the portrait was shown at the Museum and Gallery of the Northern Territory in the Archie 100 display. 137 00:24:27.000 --> 00:24:43.000 Then there is this exceptional portrait of a Western-arondon artist Albert Namatjira by William Dargie, who had 36 portraits in the prize and was rewarded by Archibald judges eight times between 1941 and 1956. 138 00:24:43.000 --> 00:24:47.000 A record unmatched in the prize's history. 139 00:24:47.000 --> 00:24:55.000 This portrait of Namatjira is probably the most recognisable and universally respected of all Archibald winners. 140 00:24:55.000 --> 00:25:05.000 By the 1950s, reproductions of Namatjira's watercolours of his country adorned the walls of Australian middle-class homes. 141 00:25:05.000 --> 00:25:18.000 Despite his artistic success, however, the artist died broken spirited at just 57. His anguish, anguish and resilience perceptible in this portrait. 142 00:25:18.000 --> 00:25:27.000 The portraits presented here commemorate some of those who have united people through their ideals and deeds. 143 00:25:27.000 --> 00:25:41.000 As we look back, we once again celebrate the local heroes and national icons who have helped create the culturally diverse society we value today. 144 00:25:41.000 --> 00:25:47.000 The inaugural Archibald Prize was held just three years after the end of World War One. 145 00:25:47.000 --> 00:25:59.000 In its first decade, portraits of heroes of the Great War were lauded, many painted under the auspices of the Australian War Memorial's official war art scheme, initiated in 1917. 146 00:25:59.000 --> 00:26:02.000 Peace, however, was short-lived. 147 00:26:02.000 --> 00:26:13.000 In 1939, after England declared war on Germany, Australian and New Zealand servicemen and women went once more to the battlefields, as did artists. 148 00:26:13.000 --> 00:26:21.000 World War Two again saw commissioning schemes with women appointed as official war artists for the first time. 149 00:26:21.000 --> 00:26:34.000 Nora Heysen was the first woman awarded the Archibald Prize, winning in 1938 with her portrait of Michel-Elinke Schumann, the French wife of the Dutch Consul-General in Australia, 150 00:26:34.000 --> 00:26:40.000 which unfortunately couldn't be brought to Australia from its home in an overseas private collection. 151 00:26:40.000 --> 00:26:49.000 Heysen's success was overshadowed by the public focus on her being the daughter of celebrated South Australian artist Hans Heysen. 152 00:26:49.000 --> 00:27:04.000 It also drew the ire of the artist Max Meldrum, who at the time told a journalist that the life of an artist was, and I quote, "unnatural and impossible for a woman." 153 00:27:04.000 --> 00:27:14.000 In 1943, however, Heysen broke more ground when she became the first woman in Australia to be appointed an official war artist. 154 00:27:14.000 --> 00:27:30.000 Serving mostly in the territory of Papua, then under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia, she produced a large body of work, with the Australian War Memorial acquiring 152 of these under the official war scheme. 155 00:27:30.000 --> 00:27:50.000 Heysen also met Dr Robert Black there, an eminent bacteriologist and professor of tropical medicine at the University of Sydney from 1963 to 1982, and the subject of this, her 1950 Archibald Prize work, now in the National Portrait Gallery's collection. 156 00:27:50.000 --> 00:28:03.000 As the war raged on, images related to the conflict appeared increasingly in the Archibald, not just portraits of Australians in various service roles, but also stories from the home front. 157 00:28:03.000 --> 00:28:17.000 Another one of my favourite Archie 100 discoveries is the portrait by the little known artist Alfreda Marcovitch, who was raised in Newcastle and travelled to Paris to study art in the 1920s. 158 00:28:17.000 --> 00:28:32.000 She married a prominent Yugoslav diplomat and journalist and lived in Yugoslavia for 20 years. Marcovitch escaped Europe with her two children just prior to the 1941 bombing of Belgrade by Nazi Germany. 159 00:28:32.000 --> 00:28:37.000 Her husband is presumed to have died during the Blitz. 160 00:28:37.000 --> 00:28:48.000 This portrait depicts Muriel Knox Doherty, who Marcovitch knew from her student days at Abbotsley Girls' School in Sydney, where Doherty was an untrained teacher. 161 00:28:48.000 --> 00:29:04.000 Doherty later joined the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration following the cessation of hostilities in 1945 when she was appointed matron to the recently liberated Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp in Germany. 162 00:29:04.000 --> 00:29:17.000 She was awarded the Royal Red Cross for exceptional services in military nursing and her harrowing experiences were later published in the book Letters from Belsen 1945. 163 00:29:17.000 --> 00:29:24.000 It's an extraordinary portrait, now in the collection of the Australian War Memorial. 164 00:29:24.000 --> 00:29:42.000 The aftermath of the war saw emigre artists from across Europe come to these shores, bringing with them current ideas about portraiture, seen in this work by two-time Archibald winner Judy Cassab, a portrait of fellow emigre artist Stanislaus Rappatec. 165 00:29:42.000 --> 00:29:48.000 Cassab fled Nazi-occupied Austria and arrived in Australia in 1951. 166 00:29:48.000 --> 00:29:58.000 The works of artists like Cassab have become intrinsic to the chronicle of Australian art and the Archibald prize. 167 00:29:58.000 --> 00:30:12.000 In 1943, the Archibald itself briefly knocked the wall off newspaper front pages when William Dobell won with his portrait of fellow artist Joshua Smith. 168 00:30:12.000 --> 00:30:17.000 From the outset, controversy has quartered the Archibald Prize. 169 00:30:17.000 --> 00:30:28.000 Over the decades, works have been censured when the appropriateness of the sitter was questioned, such as this portrait by seven-time Archibald winner W.B. McInnes. 170 00:30:28.000 --> 00:30:39.000 Depicting Melbourne's socialite, Miss Neville Collins, Archibald commentators were in uplaw about whether the subject was indeed distinguished. 171 00:30:39.000 --> 00:30:47.000 In the 1930s and 40s, however, a different battle was played out on the walls of the Archibald. 172 00:30:47.000 --> 00:30:59.000 A cohort of artists supporting modern trends in art spared in the press with members of the newly established Australian Academy of Art, with its largely conservative outlook. 173 00:30:59.000 --> 00:31:21.000 This led to the biggest controversy in the history of the prize, in which two artists, Joseph Wolinski, who I mentioned before as the all-time record holder in the Archibald, and Mary Edwell-Burke, took the Gallery trustees to court after they awarded the 1943 Archibald Prize to Dobell for his portrait of Smith. 174 00:31:21.000 --> 00:31:35.000 While I do not include Dobell's winning work, which was all but destroyed in a file, the narrative of this most famous of Archibald controversies is played out through another of Dobell's 1943 Archibald portraits. 175 00:31:35.000 --> 00:31:47.000 His portrayal of the Glaswegian tea maker, Joe Westcott, known as the Billy Boy, and Joe Joshua Smith's portrait of Dame Mary Gilmore, which was the runner-up that year. 176 00:31:47.000 --> 00:31:57.000 Dobell and Smith's friendship was irrevocably damaged by the court case that followed the awarding of the 1943 portrait prize to Dobell. 177 00:31:57.000 --> 00:32:05.000 It challenged the painting's legitimacy as a portrait, as many felt it was closer to caricature. 178 00:32:05.000 --> 00:32:19.000 Art critics, gallery directors, artists, even medical experts, were called on for opinion, and Smith's appearance was put under intense and humiliating scrutiny. 179 00:32:19.000 --> 00:32:29.000 But how do we unlock the secrets of our psyche? As a society, the approach has shifted over the last hundred years. 180 00:32:29.000 --> 00:32:39.000 In the early 20th century, psychoanalysis was suggested as a way to deal with the subconscious, our oppressed desires, or conflicted feelings. 181 00:32:39.000 --> 00:32:57.000 The 1960s counterculture movement advocated psychotropic drugs as a means of exerting creating impulses, while today there is increased emphasis on identifying and supporting mental health issues, such as anxiety, depression, and trauma. 182 00:32:57.000 --> 00:33:19.000 In this triple portrait by Dora Toovey, her subject, soprano Janet le Brun Brown, known on stage as Barbara Russell, mourns the loss of her recently deceased husband, composer Horace Keats, and their close friend, the poet Christopher Brennan, who had died over a decade earlier. 183 00:33:19.000 --> 00:33:28.000 Toovey's empathy is elucidated through her subject's melancholic visage and satinine backdrop. 184 00:33:28.000 --> 00:33:40.000 The heart and mind have long fascinated artists. In their lives and in their work, artists negotiate the myriad aspects of the human experience, 185 00:33:40.000 --> 00:33:51.000 the complexities of our personal relationships, and the sometimes veiled feelings, hope, doubt, despair, joy that accompany them. 186 00:33:51.000 --> 00:34:01.000 This portrait of an unnamed Australian serviceman by Ben Quilty, painted shortly after his tour of Afghanistan in 2011 as an official war artist, 187 00:34:01.000 --> 00:34:09.000 focuses squarely on the long-term physical and emotional consequences of his subject's experience. 188 00:34:09.000 --> 00:34:21.000 Through Quilty's potent rendering of flesh, bodies stripped of the protective shell of uniform and body armour, the artist reveals his sitter's inherent frailty. 189 00:34:21.000 --> 00:34:35.000 The potential of portraiture to illuminate the inner workings of their subjects and themselves has led artists to experiment with the limits of expression as they explore what lies beneath. 190 00:34:35.000 --> 00:34:41.000 One of my favourite sections of the exhibition is the theme titled 'In Polite Conversation'. 191 00:34:41.000 --> 00:34:51.000 Customary codes of behaviour have, in more genteel times, dictated that certain topics should never enter 'polite' conversation. 192 00:34:51.000 --> 00:35:02.000 With Archibald artists, however, nothing is off limits. Social taboos are tackled head-on without fear of censorship or reproach. 193 00:35:02.000 --> 00:35:11.000 Universal suffrage, the environment and the rights of First Nations people are just some of the issues that artists have broached in the past century. 194 00:35:11.000 --> 00:35:20.000 This beautifully painted portrait of leading feminist and social justice crusader, Jessie Street, is by Reginald Gerald Nathan, 195 00:35:20.000 --> 00:35:27.000 one of the prize's most prolific artists, who portrayed many of Australia's pioneering women. 196 00:35:27.000 --> 00:35:31.000 It is also from the National Portrait Gallery's collection. 197 00:35:31.000 --> 00:35:39.000 Politics and religion are two of the most influential factors on human existence and our future. 198 00:35:39.000 --> 00:35:52.000 Over the decades, Archibalded artists have cast their loyalties and sentiments on their canvases and seldom shy away from portraying those whose ideas may be polarising. 199 00:35:52.000 --> 00:36:03.000 Spiritual figures, politicians of all persuasions and those individuals whose beliefs and endeavours have impacted the way our society has grown and prospered. 200 00:36:03.000 --> 00:36:11.000 These are some of the Archibalded sitters who have led the debate into some of the greatest challenges of our time. 201 00:36:11.000 --> 00:36:15.000 Finally, the exhibition concludes with the art world. 202 00:36:15.000 --> 00:36:26.000 Art critics, gallerists, curators, museum directors, collectors and patrons have been frequent subjects of Archibald portraits since 1921. 203 00:36:26.000 --> 00:36:34.000 The movers and shakers of the art world have also played a seminal role in the success of the prize over the past hundred years. 204 00:36:34.000 --> 00:36:44.000 Their support of portraiture through the decades, when many questioned the relevancy of the genre, has been instrumental in its survival. 205 00:36:44.000 --> 00:36:53.000 The enduring friendships between Archibalded artists and those who support their creative endeavours are made tangible through many of these works. 206 00:36:53.000 --> 00:37:06.000 The Archibald's most prevalent subject, aside from self-portraits, is gallerist Ray Hughes, who appeared 14 times from 1974 until his death in 2017. 207 00:37:06.000 --> 00:37:17.000 Here we see the artist Ian Smith's 2003 Archibald portrait of Hughes in this quasi-Cubist portrayal of his larger-than-life subject, 208 00:37:17.000 --> 00:37:32.000 and acknowledging leading Parisian gallerist Ambroise Vollard and Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler, early supporters of Cezanne, Picasso, and whom Hughes greatly admired. 209 00:37:32.000 --> 00:37:42.000 Smith said of his subject, whose portrayal by him was seen eight times in the Archibald prize between 1977 and 2003, 210 00:37:42.000 --> 00:37:51.000 "I think Ray, too, is always trying to change things, to reinvent himself and look for the new in art." 211 00:37:51.000 --> 00:38:03.000 Other portraits record these champions of art, who fostered and promoted the skills and talents of artists in both Australia and Ayrtair Royal New Zealand, 212 00:38:03.000 --> 00:38:12.000 while acknowledging the achievements of Australia's most famous and enduring portrait award as it celebrates its centenary.